Kosheen hat geschrieben:
Aber während die einen über das Krhts-bild AIDS und dementsprechende Präventionsmaßmahmen aufklären bzw. die Mittel hierzu auch bereitstellen und somit 1. Hilfe vor Ort leisten, stellen die anderen verantwortungslos und realitätsabwesend in missionierenden Predigen,den Erhalt von stabilen Partnerschaften und Monogamie in den Vordergrund und meinen, somit leisten sie einen positiven Beitrag zur Veränderung der katastrophalen Verhältnisse indem sie den von Gott gewollten Familienreichtum propagieren. Damit stellt die kathol. Kirche sich halsbrecherisch gegen das Hilfssystem, das notwendiger Weise von anderer Stelle ausgeht, indem es effektive Maßnahmen wie eben die kostengünstige Variante zur Krankheitsvorbeugung und Schwangerschaftsverhütung, weder unterstützt noch ihre Verbreitung einfach nur stillschweigend duldet, sondern ignorant dagegn arbeitet.
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The ABC Model
The Bush Administration is basing its AIDS initiative on the success of Uganda, which has experienced the greatest decline in HIV prevalence of any country in the world.2 Studies show that from 1991 to 2001, HIV infection rates in Uganda declined from about 15 percent to 5 percent. Among pregnant women in Kampala, the capital of Uganda, HIV prevalence dropped from a high of approximately 30 percent to 10 percent over the same period.3 How did Uganda do it?
The best evidence suggests that the crucial factor was a national campaign to discourage risky sexual behaviors that contribute to the spread of the disease. Beginning in the mid-1980s, the Ugandan government, working closely with community and faith-based organizations, delivered a consistent AIDS prevention message: Abstain from sex until marriage, Be faithful to your partner, or use Condoms if abstinence and fidelity are not practiced.
Despite different approaches, the reports all agree on at least one central fact: Abstinence and reduction in the number of sexual partners, not condoms, were the most important behavioral changes linked to HIV prevalence decline in Uganda.
Based on the best research data available, several lessons can be drawn from Uganda's experience.
Lesson 1: High-risk sexual behaviors can be discouraged and replaced with healthier lifestyles.
Lesson 2: Abstinence and marital fidelity appear to be the most important factors in preventing the spread of HIV.
Lesson 3: Condoms do not play the primary role in reducing HIV/AIDS transmission.
Lesson 4: Religious organizations are crucial participants in the fight against AIDS.
zu den Kondomen:
Most U.S. and foreign health organizations--including the USAID, Centers for Disease Control, UNAIDS, and World Bank--focus on condom education and distribution to combat AIDS. They assume that the real problem is a "condom shortfall."35
This was neither the assumption nor the strategy of the Uganda campaign. "We are being told that only a thin piece of rubber stands between us and the death of our continent," says Uganda President Yoweri Museveni. "Condoms have a role to play as a means of protection, especially in couples who are HIV-positive, but they cannot become the main means of stemming the tide of AIDS."
Under Uganda's ABC approach, condoms were considered the last option, aimed primarily at high-risk groups such as commercial sex workers unlikely to change their sexual behaviors. The general population, however, mostly rejected the condom option. Dr. Vinand Nantulya, an infectious disease advisor to President Museveni and senior health advisor at the Global Fund for AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, summarized, "Ugandans really never took to condoms."37
Although there is some evidence that condom use has increased among those who are sexually active,38 several studies conducted during the previous decade strongly suggest that condoms played only a marginal role in lowering Uganda's HIV/AIDS rate:
* The condom usage rate in Uganda is only average for Africa.
* Even after distribution campaigns, condom usage remains stable at low rates.
* Of the condoms distributed to high-risk groups in Uganda, 91 percent went unused.
* In one rural population-based cohort, there was "no overall protective effect against HIV acquisition in women who reported condom use."
Condoms may be somewhat effective when targeted at high-risk groups such as commercial sex workers and their clients. However, there is no credible evidence that condom promotion is ultimately the best way to protect these groups from AIDS.
First, the overall effectiveness of condoms in preventing HIV/AIDS transmission remains hotly debated.
A meta-analysis published in the Cochrane Review suggests that, even when condoms are used consistently, their effectiveness is only about 80 percent.43 A draft report for UNAIDS puts the failure rate of condoms at about 10 percent (meaning that something goes wrong in about 10 percent of all cases when condoms are used). The report's lead author, Norman Hearst, a professor at the University of California at San Francisco, says that policymakers should be talking about "safer sex," not safe sex, when speaking of condoms.44
Second, regular use of condoms may delay--but not prevent--HIV infection.
This approach, known as "risk reduction," is ultimately fatalistic; it holds out little hope that people can abandon destructive behaviors. It also rests on a deeply flawed assumption: that people engaged in dangerous and self-destructive lifestyles--making highly irrational choices--will somehow act rationally once they are given a condom. The high-risk behaviors of those in the sex industry almost guarantee that they eventually will contract HIV or other life-threatening diseases. A truly humane approach would link the targeted distribution of condoms with programs that rescue sex workers from the streets by providing education, job training, family assistance, and exposure to supportive faith communities.45
Insisting on condoms as the primary strategy to reduce AIDS not only overlooks the lessons of Uganda and the failure rate of condoms, but also ignores how the disease is usually transmitted. When the AIDS virus is contracted widely throughout a society--as it is in much of Africa--condoms appear to be the least effective means to control it. A UNAIDS report makes the point clearly: "There are no definite examples yet of generalized epidemics that have been turned back by prevention programs based primarily on condom promotion."
Harvard's Dr. Green, a supporter of condom distribution programs before 1993, now agrees: "It must be acknowledged that program emphasis on condom provision and promotion alone does not seem to have paid off."47
This helps explain why countries with the highest levels of condom availability--Zimbabwe, Botswana, South Africa, and Kenya--still have the world's highest HIV prevalence rates.
By leading through example and teaching the values of abstinence and fidelity, religious groups helped instigate positive changes in cultural attitudes toward women. Critics have dismissed morality-based prevention programs, in part because they assume that African women lack the social status to make independent decisions about their sexual behavior.
But the messages of sexual responsibility carried by governmental and non-governmental organizations, including religious groups, have strongly supported Ugandan women. Indeed, the empowerment of women has been a deliberate government policy since 1986. A recent multi-country survey found that Ugandan women ranked first among all African nations in their ability to refuse unwanted sex or insist upon condom use.
Je höher der Katholikenanteil in einem afrikanischen Land, desto niedriger die AIDS-Rate (Amin Abboud, Bioethiker, Australien)
In Uganda sind 43 % der Bevölkerung katholisch.